the tay bridge disaster

19 January 2021, Comments: Comments Off

With one lash of its ugly and mighty tail. J'ai déjà téléchargé Qobuz pour Mac OS Ouvrir Je n'ai pas encore téléchargé Qobuz pour Mac OS Télécharger l'app Copier le lien pour partager la page. If visiting Dundee, I would highly recommend taking a walk to the water front. Which can be seen for a sixpence or a shilling. And they laughed and grinned just like wild baboons,While they fired at him their sharp harpoons:But when struck with the harpoons he dived below,Which filled his pursuers’ hearts with woe: Because they guessed they had lost a prize,Which caused the tears to well up in their eyes;And in that their anticipations were only right,Because he sped on to Stonehaven with all his might: And was first seen by the crew of a Gourdon fishing boat,Which they thought was a big coble upturned afloat;But when they drew near they saw it was a whale,So they resolved to tow it ashore without fail. [93] Pole referred to Smeaton's work, where high winds were said to give 10 psf (0.48 kPa), with higher values being quoted for winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) or above, with the caveat that these were less certain. There were other flaws in detailed design, in maintenance, and in quality control of castings, all of which were, at least in part, Bouch's responsibility. [91] The highest pressure measured at Greenwich was 50 psf (2.4 kPa); it would probably go higher in Scotland. [94], Brunlees had made no allowance for wind loading on the Solway viaduct because the spans were short and low – if he had had to, he would probably have designed against 30 psf (1.4 kPa) with a safety margin of 4–5 (by limiting strength of iron). The Tay Bridge Disaster And The World’s Worst Poem. [97], Baker argued that the wind pressure on the high girders had been no more than 15 psf (0.72 kPa), from the absence of damage to vulnerable features on buildings in Dundee and the signal cabins at the south end of the bridge. It’s maintained by Network Rail. Even the replacement Tay Bridge contains all of the undamaged girders that were recovered after the Tay Bridge Disaster, incorporated into a safe, sturdy design. Henry Law had examined the remains of the bridge; he reported defects in workmanship and design detail. However, over the central section of the bridge, the track ran inside the lattice-work spans. The foundations of the bridge were not removed and are alongside the newer bridge. The People's Story, Tay Bridge Disaster, Robin Lumley, The History Press. So they resolved to tow it ashore without fail. In the case of the Tay Bridge the wind loading was seriously underestimated; in the case of the Princess Victoria the stern doors (see picture above) were inadequate to withstand heavy seas and the scuppers were not large enough to efficiently drain water from the car deck. I am very sorry to sayThat ninety lives have been taken awayOn the last Sabbath day of 1879,Which will be remember’d for a very long time. Whilst checking the pier foundations to see if the river bed was being scoured from around them, Noble had become aware that some diagonal tie bars were 'chattering',[note 11] and in October 1878 had begun remedying this. [148]), A new double-track Tay Bridge was built by the NBR, designed by Barlow and built by William Arrol & Co. of Glasgow 18 metres (59 ft) upstream of, and parallel to, the original bridge. … Lewis and K. Reynolds (2002) The Tay Bridge Disaster Revisited: T. Martin and I.A. the cross bracing of the piers and its fastenings were too weak to resist heavy gales. "[134], Yolland and Barlow also noted the possibility that failure was by fracture of a leeward column. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}56°26′14.4″N 2°59′18.4″W / 56.437333°N 2.988444°W / 56.437333; -2.988444, For William McGonagall's poem on this subject, see, Salvage operations underway in the Firth of Tay and dockside, How the bridge was used – speed of trains and oscillation of bridge, How the bridge was maintained – chattering ties and cracked columns, How the bridge was built – the Wormit foundry, How the bridge was built – management and inspection, Modelling of bridge failure and conclusions drawn, Law: causes were windloading, poor design and poor quality control, Pole: causes were windloading and impact of derailed carriages, Presentational differences between reports, Wind Pressure (Railway Structures) Commission. the Tay Bridge is blown down,And a passenger train from Edinburgh,Which fill’d all the people’ hearts with sorrow,And made them for to turn pale,Because none of the passengers were sav’d to tell the taleHow the disaster happen’d on the last Sabbath day of 1879,Which will be remember’d for a very long time. And my opinion is that God sent the whale in time of need,No matter what other people may think or what is their creed;I know fishermen in general are often very poor,And God in His goodness sent it to drive poverty from their door. Law's sums appear (with the wrong number and units at a crucial point) on p. 248 of the Minutes of Evidence; the correct version would seem to be this: The bars had a cross section of one point six two five square inches (10.48 cm. Beautiful Railway Bridge of the Silv'ry Tay! [164], Various additional pieces of evidence have been advanced in the last 40 years, leading to "forensic engineering" reinterpretations of what actually happened. Brian Gibbens, QC, was supported by two expert assessors, and made findings as to blame/responsibility but not as to liability/culpability.[145]. [11] One modern interpretation of available information suggests winds were gusting to 80 mph (129 km/h; 36 m/s).[12]. As construction began, Bouch was forced to change his plans for the bridge. taking the wind at near ground level at the southern shore to be the same as 80 feet (24 m) above the Tay in mid-firth because there was quite as much disturbance of the ballast (the Inquiry rejected this assumption and therefore Baker's conclusion), the pressure on the window pane was the same as the wind loading pressure (not valid in the absence of any evidence that leeward windows were open; both Barlow and Rothery corrected him on this, from work he had previously done on glass of other dimensions the pane would fail at 18 psf (0.86 kPa) (the inquiry did not discuss this, but the sum seems over-precise given the variable failure pressure of outwardly identical panes of glass, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 20:45. Bouch's counsel called witnesses last; hence his first attempts to suggest derailment and collision were made piecemeal in cross-examination of universally unsympathetic expert witnesses. Design disaster . By 5.15 pm a gale was moving in from the west and the river, in the words of the Captain, "was getting up very fast". An extensive inquiry was carried out, including numerous witnesses, experts and reports. A court of Inquiry (a judicial enquiry under Section 7 of the Regulation of Railways Act 1871 "into the causes of, and circumstances attending" the accident) was immediately set up: Henry Cadogan Rothery, Commissioner of Wrecks, presided, supported by Colonel Yolland (Inspector of Railways) and William Henry Barlow, President of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Which has got 17 feet 4 inches from tip to tip of a tail! It was suggested that the last two vehicles (the second-class carriage and a brake van) which appeared more damaged were those derailed, but (said Law) they were of less robust construction and the other carriages were not unscathed. Designed by the engineer Thomas Bouch and completed in 1878, the Tay Bridge was just under two miles in length and was considered the longest... Obtenez des photos d'actualité haute résolution de qualité sur Getty Images Sir George Stokes agreed with Airy that 'catspaws', ripples on the water produced by gusts, could have a width of several hundred yards. Beautiful Railway Bridge of the Silv’ry Tay! Alas! Here is a flaw which extends through the thickness of the metal. He appointed Henry Noble as his bridge inspector. The Tay Bridge disaster of 1879 shocked the world and led to important changes in bridge design, construction, and inspection. Train from Edinburgh to Dundee on 28th Dec, Photographs of the damaged piers and of recovered wreckage are accessible at, Mins of Ev p. 19 (William Abercrombie Clark), Mins of Ev p. 373 (Major-General Hutchinson), Mins of Ev (pp. Then the water did descend on the men in the boats. [59] That was on the instructions of the resident engineer,[60] who had little foundry experience either and relied upon the foreman. [112], Law concluded that the bridge as designed if perfect in execution would not have failed in the way seen[113](Cochrane went further; it 'would be standing now'). The bridge—designed by Sir Thomas Bouch—used lattice girders supported by iron piers, with cast iron columns and wrought iron cross-bracing. However he had never checked speed through the high girders. 158–163 (Gerrit Willem Camphuis), Mins of Ev p. 208 (Alexander Milne) and p. 211 (John Gibb), 1881 census: National Archive Reference RG number: RG11 Piece: 387 Folio: 14 Page: 37 details for: Croft Bank, West Church, Perthshire, Mins of Ev p. 514 (Edgar Gilkes), p. 370 (Frederick William Reeves) and p. 290 (Albert Groethe), Mins of Ev p. 354 (John Cochrane), confirmed by Edgar Gilkes (Mins of Ev p. 521), Evidence of James Brunlees p.362 – Mins of Ev, Mins of Ev pp. [77] Four of the fourteen lugs tested were unsound, having failed at lower than expected loadings. "The Tay Bridge Disaster" is a poem written in 1880 by the Scottish poet William McGonagall, who has been recognized as the worst poet in history. [88][note 24] Bouch said that whilst 20 psf (0.96 kPa) had been discussed, he had been 'guided by the report on the Forth Bridge' to assume 10 psf (0.48 kPa) and therefore made no special allowance for wind loading. it was a most fearful and beautiful sight. Researchers reveal the number of people who died in the Tay Bridge disaster is closer to 60, rather than 75. Work started 6 July 1883 and the bridge opened on 13 July 1887. One witness said these advanced to the north end of the high girders with about 15 seconds between first and last;[25][note 4] the other that they were all at the north end, with less time between. [2] The southern and central divisions were nearly level, but the northern division descended towards Dundee at gradients of up to 1 in 73. The bracing had failed by the lugs giving way; in nearly every case, the fracture ran through the hole. One light on each of the 14 piers in or bordering the navigable channel, of which he had been able to see seven. A corruption of. 398–408 (Sir Thomas Bouch), Mins of Ev p. 392 (Robert Henry Scott, MA FRS, Secretary to the Meteorological Council), Drawing "Correct Arrangement of 4.15 P.M. The number of deaths was actually 75, not 90 as stated in the poem. First published in Poetic Gems (Winter, Duncan & Co., 1890). I am very sorry to say That ninety lives have been taken away On the last Sabbath day of 1879, Which will be remember'd for a very long time. The Tay Bridge after its collapse on December 28, 1879. A Board of Trade inspection was conducted over three days of good weather in February 1878; the bridge was passed for use by passenger traffic, subject to a 25 mph (40 km/h) speed limit. [27] A fourth said he had seen a girder fall into the river at the north end of the high girders, then a light had briefly appeared in the southern high girders, disappearing when another girder fell; he made no mention of fire or flashes. The bridge—designed by Sir Thomas Bouch—used lattice girders supported by iron piers, with cast iron columns and wrought iron cross-bracing. Beautiful Railway Bridge of the Silv’ry Tay!Alas! [135] The Tay Bridge Disaster is a lesson (case study) to Project Managers and Civil Engineers on how NOT to undertake a large project. It is just after 7.00 pm on 28 th December 1879. Cast-on lugs tended to make unsound castings (Cochrane said he had seen examples in the bridge ruins. He’s most famous for his poem about the Tay Bridge Disaster of 1879. The experts agreed with them, but pointed out that Cleveland foundries managed to produce quality castings. "The Bridge is down, "the Bridge is down," [61], Whilst the working practices were the responsibility of Gilkes, their contract with NBR provided that all work done by the contractor was subject to the approval of the workmanship by Bouch. If the bridge had failed at lower wind loadings, this was evidence that the defects in design and workmanship he had objected to had given uneven loadings, significantly reduced the bridge strength and invalidated the calculation. On the last Sabbath day of 1879, Which will be remember’d for a very long time. the Tay Bridge is blown down, And a passenger train from Edinburgh, Which fill'd all the people's hearts with sorrow, And made them all for to turn pale, Because none … He was referring to advice given by the Astronomer Royal, Sir George Biddell Airy in 1873 when consulted about Bouch's design for a suspension bridge across the Firth of Forth; that wind pressures as high as 40 psf (1.9 kPa) might be encountered very locally, but averaged over a 1,600 ft (490 m) span 10 psf (0.48 kPa) would be a reasonable allowance. Bouch had sought expert advice on wind loading when designing a proposed rail bridge over the Firth of Forth; as a result of that advice he had made no explicit allowance for wind loading in the design of the Tay Bridge. So they got a rope from each boat tied round his tail,And landed their burden at Stonehaven without fail;And when the people saw it their voices they did raise,Declaring that the brave fishermen deserved great praise. Future British bridge designs had to allow for wind loadings of up to 56 pounds per square foot (2.7 kilopascals). [144] The structure and terms of reference were better defined than for the Tay Bridge inquiry. All the oral evidence given, reproduced verbatim –. Noble had assumed the cotters were too small and had not been driven up hard in the first place, but on the chattering ties the cotters were loose, and even if driven fully in would not fill the slot and put the bar under tension. [28][note 5] The lug holes should have been drilled and the tiebars secured by pins filling the holes (rather than bolts). Yolland and Barlow noted "there is no requirement issued by the Board of Trade respecting wind pressure, and there does not appear to be any understood rule in the engineering profession regarding wind pressure in railway structures; and we therefore recommend the Board of Trade should take such steps as may be necessary for the establishment of rules for that purpose. [119] Cochrane and Brunlees added that both sides of the carriages were damaged "very much alike". At some piers, base column sections were still standing; at others, base sections had fallen to the west. ", "Courier article to blame for Tay Bridge Disaster death toll confusion, says researcher", "William Robertson – Engineer – (13 August 1825 – 11 July 1899)", "Don't Look Down – the story of Belah viaduct", "Iron Founding—Uniting Cast Iron by 'Burning-On, "On the evolution in design and calculation of steel structures over the 19th century in Belgium, France and England", "Tay Bridge Disaster: Report of the Court of Inquiry and Report of Mr Rothery", "An Experimental Enquiry concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills, and Other Machines, Depending on a Circular Motion", "The main text of the Commission's report can be found at", "Natural Areas and Greenspaces: Bidston Hill", "The Wirral Hundred/The Wirral Peninsula", "Railway Viaducts over South Esk River  (Category B Listed Building) (LB49864)", "Discussion: Wind-Pressures, and Stresses Caused by the Wind on Bridges", "BBC, Memorials for those killed in Tay Bridge disaster", "Anniversary walk to commemorate Tay Bridge Disaster taking place this weekend", "OU on the BBC: Forensic Engineering – The Tay Bridge Disaster", "Forensic engineering: a reappraisal of the Tay Bridge disaster", "Broadside ballad entitled 'In Memory of the Tay Bridge Disaster, Tay Bridge Disaster: Report Of The Court of Inquiry, and Report Of Mr. Rothery, Upon the Circumstances Attending the Fall of a Portion of the Tay Bridge on the 28th December 1879, Tom Martin's engineering analysis of the bridge disaster, Dundee local history centre page on the disaster, Find a grave memorial of Tay River victims, Firth of Tay Bridge Disaster 1879: Worst Structural Disaster in British History, Tay Bridge Disaster: Appendix to the Report Of The Court of Inquiry. An analysis of the collapse leads to the conclusion that the combined wind loading on the train and the High Girders was sufficient to make the latticework columns fail in shear. He thought the piers should have been wider (both to counteract toppling and to increase the horizontal component forces the tiebars could withstand) and rectangular (to increase the number of tiebars directly resisting lateral forces); at the very least there should have been lateral bracing between the outermost columns of the piers. At either end of the bridge, the bridge girders were deck trusses, the tops of which were level with the pier tops, with the single-track railway running on top. The piers were narrower and their cross-bracing was less extensive and robust than on previous similar designs by Bouch. Which filled his pursuers’ hearts with woe: Because they guessed they had lost a prize. Pole's WP article gives a full account of his interest in music and whist but perhaps does not do full credit to his engineering credentials, for which see his obituary at, presumably design calculations had not been kept; presumably this was normal practice, since the Inquiry did not comment on this, the Board of Trade expectation was that tensile stress on wrought iron should not exceed 5 ton per square inch; this gave a margin of at least 4 against failure and about 2 against plastic deformation, p. 184 of "Useful Rules and Tables relating to Mensuration, Engineering Structures and Machines" 1866 edition (1872 edition at, His most developed example was a pane of glass in a signal cabin, In 1871 at Maryhill an NBR train running at 20–25 miles per hour (32–40 km/h) was fouled by a traveling crane on the opposite line: for details of the damage caused see, Yolland and Barlow say that if he had there would have been ample time to put in stronger ties and fastenings, which is difficult to reconcile with the weak point having been the integrally cast lugs, "From ... observations taken at Bidston of the greatest hourly velocity and of the greatest pressure on the square foot during gales between the years 1867 and 1895 inclusive, I find that the average pressure (24 readings) for an hourly run of wind at seventy miles per hour (110 km/h) was forty-five pounds per square foot (2.2 kPa). the Tay Bridge is blown down. [152], Bouch had also been engineer for the North British, Arbroath and Montrose Railway, which included an iron viaduct over the South Esk. Good Heavens! According to Benjamin Baker "all the difficulty is in the foundations. Écoutez plus de 60 millions de titres avec votre abonnement illimité. This is an account of how the Tay Rail Bridge disaster may have occurred based on investigations using software to model the behaviour of the structure under wind loading. So Mr John Wood has bought it for two hundred and twenty-six pound,And has brought it to Dundee all safe and all sound;Which measures 40 feet in length from the snout to the tail,So I advise the people far and near to see it without fail. Nov 05, 2014 Richard Thomas rated it it was amazing. [48], The workers at the Wormit foundry complained that the columns had been cast using 'Cleveland iron', which always had scum on it—it was less easy to cast than 'good Scotch metal'[49][note 13] and more likely to give defective castings. [note 17]. [114] The calculations assumed the bridge to be largely as designed, with all components in their intended position, and the ties reasonably evenly loaded. Which wet their trousers and also their coats; But it only made them the more determined to catch the whale. It must have been an awful sight,To witness in the dusky moonlight,While the Storm Fiend did laugh, and angry did bray,Along the Railway Bridge of the Silv’ry Tay,Oh! [note 3] When the train failed to appear on the line off the bridge into Dundee he tried to talk to the signal cabin at the north end of the bridge, but found that all communication with it had been lost.[18]. see review. During its construction 20 … Includes a large number of drawings of the bridge, and calculations of the result of wind pressure on the structure, Report from the Select Committee on the North British Railway (Tay Bridge) Bill; together with the Proceedings of the Committee and Mins of Ev. When pressed further he would only say that it was distinct, large, and visible. [56] He was aware of 'burning on',[57] but the use of Beaumont egg had been hidden from him by the foreman. Both the wrought and cast iron had good strength, while the bolts "were of sufficient strength and proper iron". Standard wind pressure measurements were of hydrostatic pressure which had to be corrected by a factor of 1.4–2 to give total wind loading – with a 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) wind this would be 12.5–18 psf (0.60–0.86 kPa). By telling the world fearlessly without the least dismay. As soon as the catastrophe came to be knownThe alarm from mouth to mouth was blown,And the cry rang out all o’er the town,Good Heavens! By 3 January 1880, they were taking evidence in Dundee; they then appointed Henry Law (a qualified civil engineer) to undertake detailed investigations. There were therefore three divisions of linked high girder spans, the spans in each division being structurally connected to each other, but not to neighbouring spans in other divisions. in words of terror spread; So come on, brave boys, and never say fail. Since then it has given irreproachable service. Because ninety lives had been taken away, As soon as the catastrophe came to be known. "[62] Bouch had spent over £9,000 on inspection (his total fee was £10,500)[63] but did not produce any witness who had inspected castings on his behalf. The tie bar was placed between the sling plates with all three slots aligned and overlapping, and then a gib was driven through all three slots and secured. The original Tay Bridge was opened to great acclaim and publicity in 1878. Higher windspeeds were recorded over shorter intervals, but at the inquiry an expert witness warned of their unreliability, and declined to estimate conditions at Dundee from readings taken elsewhere. The Story and the Conclusions in to the cause of the Tay Rail Bridge Disaster. "[155] It had to be dismantled and rebuilt by Sir William Arrol to a design by W. R. Galbraith before the line could be opened to traffic in 1881. At 7:13 p.m. a train from Burntisland[13] (consisting of a 4-4-0 locomotive, its tender, five passenger carriages,[note 1] and a luggage van[14]) slowed to pick up the baton from the signal cabin at the south end of the bridge, then headed out onto the bridge, picking up speed. A railway bridge across the Tay had widespread support but from the start the design of the bridge was roundly criticised, its single track particularly so on grounds of both capacity and stability.

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