Indeed, it is possible to localize spatially the irradiation offering both physical and chemical control over the polymer network. Christopher J. Hansen, in 3D and 4D Printing of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials, 2020. Ceram. 3D Systems ProJet 7000 Stereolithography Printer. (via radical or cationic mechanism) upon exposure to light source of diﬀerent wavelengths. As an example, a photopolymerizable PEG-DMA-based hydrogel was loaded with temozolomide, an anticancerous drug, and injected in a nude mice on a human glioblastoma model . (depending on the photoinitiator system). Two primary enhancements have been made in the past decade. The laser moves across the top of the print bed … More importantly, vat photopolymerization printing methods provide rapid processing time with high resolution (Janusziewicz et al., 2016; Shanjani et al., 2015; Tumbleston et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2016). Challenges due to the introduction of ceramic powders into the resin can be circumvented by applying ceramifiable preceramic polymers, which can be directly employed. Its simplicity and high performance make this method very suitable for microlithographic tools for electronic circuit fabrication . The laser induces cross-linking only within this focal region due to its high light intensity. Fig. Among these, SLA was the first 3D printing technology invented in 1986 by Chuck Hull. 3D scanning is a process of collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object, creating a digital model based on it. All users should evaluate product suitability for each intended application of that product under actual use conditions. Photopolymerization is an important area of investigation due to its wide industrial applications and huge potential in simple and fast production of materials with special properties. Postprocessing steps include postcuring in UV light, debinding to remove the polymer, and sintering to achieve final ceramic properties. 11.1). Generally, the selection of UV source varies according to the resin used, but commonly used sources are Xenon lamp and HeCd laser.2,42 Furthermore, two-photon polymerization is also being utilized in SLA for obtaining the better resolution of the final printed 3D object. When compared to lasers, as well as other curing methods, photopolymerization offers several advantages. Advantages. High-quality micropatterning is a practical need in the electronics and computer industries. Thermo-optical micropatterning done using tweezer-induced microbubbles exhibited fivefold to sixfold higher conductivity than with conventional methods. The part is lowered into the liquid bath by a distance equal to one layer thickness. Photo Credit: 3D Systems. This approach eliminates the rate-limiting wiper step, thereby significantly speeding the print process. Depending on particle size and the refractive index of both the ceramic and photoreactive polymer, the curing depth will be reduced more or less drastically, and a broadening effect on the curing spot can be achieved, decreasing the resolution of the printed structure and increasing the overcuring effect and inaccuracy of the printing process (Halloran and Stereolithography, 2016). The laser moves across the top of the print bed while curing the underlying material. The material to be patterned is restricted to liquid monomeric and/or oligomeric formulations that become reactive upon exposure to specific wavelengths of light, which then polymerize to form a solid patterned shape . Do you have a prototype that’s been stuck in your head, get it out of your head and into your hands. Laser tweezers was able to drop single cell continuously and arrange cells in specific pattern (Ma et al., 2012). 1.3C). Typically, this technique uses hydrogels and free radical photopolymerization due to their numerous advantages, including biocompatibility, high-water content, high versatility, injectability, or in situ gelation capability, and others. (2013) designed a single-cell communication model by moving individual cells into microwells with laser tweezers to study the interactions between cardiomyocytes and MSCs. Following the curing of the first layer, the substrate or stage is translated downwards to polymerize the subsequent layers in a bottom-up manner thereby printing the complete 3D structure. It is used by different 3D printing processes such as 3D Digital Light Processing (DLP), Stereolithography (SLA), and MultiJet printers. SLA uses light, mostly UV, in order to polymerize a layer of precursor material and photoinitiator in a specific two-dimensional pattern (Kang et al., 2012a). Photochemical Study of a New Bimolecular Photoinitiating System for Vat Photopolymerization 3D Printing Techniques under Visible Light March 2020 Catalysts 10(3):284 Some of the most common 3D printing processes that support photopolymerization include the following: Digital light processing; Continuous liquid interface production; Stereolithography; Benefits of Photopolymerization . The second enhancement is to shine light through an optically transparent window below the bath (Fig.